Tell the Prime Minister of Japan to NOT ALLOW any Fukushima DOGS or CATS for Radiation Research Studies.


The effects of Cesium on Animals : Completed Research Studies, (Just a sample of ALL the studies and a sampling of animals that were studied.) But, because of the FUkushima Nuclear plant disaster a new Round of KILLING innocent Fukushima Nuclear Disaster Animal survivors has begun. Do you think that they are going to find anything different? My answer is NO. It is just an excuse for Academic Scientists and Researchers to KILL more Fukushima animals so that they can write an article that will be just like the ones below. Count how many BEAGLES were killed in just the few articles that are posted below. *The photo is of a Fukushima chained dog which happens to be a beagle. Let’s hope that he doesn’t end up “euthanized via anesthesia so that they can drain him off his blood, dissect him, and analyze his body parts. Trust me, he is a PRIME candidate for a FUTURE research study. These animals are at risk because the scientists are RUTHLESS when it comes to getting their “specimens” and can always tell the owner that the animal should be donated to them for study “for the betterment of humanity and the Japanese Nation.” SAY NO to the Prime Minister of Japan. Tell him to NOT ALLOW any Fukushima DOGS or CATS for Radiation Research Studies. (link to the Prime Minister of Japan :

Non-Human Toxicity Excerpts:
/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ Fifty-four pure-bred beagle dogs (equally divided by sex) received single iv injections of 137-CsCl in sterile isotonic saline at 12-14 months of age, six dogs receiving mean initial body burdens of 137-Cs of 141 MBq 137-Cs/kg bw and groups of 12 dogs receiving 104, 72, 52 and 36 MBq/kg bw. …Because cesium-137 is highly soluble in body fluids, it was distributed rapidly throughout the body. The gamma-radiation component represented approximately two-thirds of the total dose; the beta-particle component represented about one-third of the total dose, but differences were seen between organs because of differences in cesium-137 concentrations, i.e. skeletal muscle had higher and bones lower concentrations than the overall average. Because of the relatively short effective half-life of cesium-137 in these dogs, about 30 days, all dogs that lived more than one year after injection had received their full dose commitment. The total doses received in the six dose groups and the associated survival times were, in descending order by dose: 11.8+/-2.0 Gy, 19-33 days; 16.4+/-5.1 Gy, 24-4537 days; 14.0+/-1.8 Gy, 77-5138 days; 11.2+/-2.5 Gy, 2148-5298 days and 7.42+/-1.2 Gy, 2471-5342 days; the controls survived 647-6015 days. …Eleven dogs that received cesium-137 at the highest dose died within 81 days after injection, primarily due to hematopoietic-cell damage resulting in pancytopenia from irradiation of the blood-forming organs. Two years after the injection, …the biological effects /in 42 cesium-injected survivors/ were distributed throughout the body instead of being localized in specific organs such as the skeleton. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was increased in the liver and biliary system (nine dogs) and in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (four dogs). No leukemias were found, in spite of the large radiation doses received by the blood-forming organs. /Cesium-137 chloride/
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at: p. V78 301-2 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED**

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ In a large study in female RFM mice, animals were exposed to acute doses from cesium-137 gamma rays (0.45 Gy/min) at 10+/-0.5 weeks of age. Groups of animals received a range of doses (0, 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 3.0 Gy), were followed for their lifespans, autopsied at death, and diagnosed for various types of neoplastic disease. Dose-response data were obtained for a range of tumor types. A significant increase in the incidence… of acute myeloid leukemia was obtained at doses of 1.0 Gy and above. /Cesium-137/
[United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation UNSCEAR 2000 Report to the General Assembly, with Scientific Annexes: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Vol 2: Effects, p.95.] **PEER REVIEWED**

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ A similar study was conducted… in beagle dogs of various ages, with 15 juveniles (aged 142-151 days), 38 young adults (aged 388-427 days) and 10 middle-aged dogs (aged 1387-2060 days). An additional 17 dogs served as controls and lived for 2972-5680 days. …The dogs that died soon after injection comprised three juvenile dogs exposed to 10.2-11.1 Gy, 10 young adult dogs exposed to 10.5-14.6 Gy and all 10 middle-aged dogs which were exposed to 9.4-12.9 Gy… . These deaths resulted from hematopoietic-cell damage that resulted in severe pancytopenia leading to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. Of the 40 dogs that died later in the study (>2 years), five juvenile dogs that received total whole-body doses <11.5 Gy had a median survival time of 3207 days (range, 1861- 3517 days), and seven that received doses >11.5 Gy had a median survival time of 3294 days (range, 2361-4815 days). The median survival of the young adult dogs was 3350 days (range, 2323-4690 days). Thirty-two of the 40 137-Cs-injected dogs that survived >2 years had malignant neoplasms: 11 dogs had carcinomas only, 10 had sarcomas only, and 11 had both carcinomas and sarcomas. Of the 17 control dogs, eight had carcinomas, one had a sarcoma and two had both a sarcoma and carcinoma. The most striking differences between the 137-Cs-injected dogs and the controls were the larger number of sarcomas with spindle-cell morphology (13 versus two in controls) and the occurrence of leukemias and myeloproliferative disease (three in the 137-Cs-injected dogs and none in controls). /Cesium-137/
[IARC. Monographs on the Evaluation of the Carcinogenic Risk of Chemicals to Man. Geneva: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer, 1972-PRESENT. (Multivolume work). Available at: p. V78 302 (2001)] **PEER REVIEWED**

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Chronic Exposure or Carcinogenicity/ The toxicity of cesium-137 in the beagle dog was investigated… as part of programs to evaluate the biological effects of both radionuclides in atomic bomb fallout and internally deposited fission-product radionuclides. …63 dogs in three age groups (15 juveniles, 142-151 days old; 38 young adults, 388-427 days old; and 10 middle-aged dogs, 1387-2060 days old) were given cesium-137 intravenously at levels (61-162 MBq/kg) near those expected to be lethal within 30 days after injection. There were 17 control dogs from the same colony. Twenty-three of the dogs injected with cesium-137, including all middle-aged dogs, died within 52 days after injection due to hematopoietic cell damage resulting in severe pancytopenia that led to fatal hemorrhage and/or septicemia. The other significant early effect was damage to the germinal epithelium of the seminiferous tubules of all male dogs. …The most significant non-neoplastic late effects in the cesium-137-injected dogs… were atrophy of the germinal epithelium of seminiferous tubules with azoospermia, and a significant dose-dependent decrease in survival. …Numerous neoplasms occurred at many different sites in the dogs injected with cesium-137… . Two differences in the findings of the two studies were that (1) there was an increased risk for malignant thyroid neoplasms in /one group of/ … male dogs injected with cesium-137, but not the… dogs /in the other study/ and (2) there was an increased relative risk for benign neoplasms excluding mammary neoplasms in /one group of/… dogs injected with cesium-137, but not /in the other group/. …In both groups, there were dose-related increased incidences of malignant neoplasms, malignant neoplasms excluding mammary neoplasms, all sarcomas considered as a group, all non-mammary carcinomas considered as a group and malignant liver neoplasms. In summary, the similarity of the findings between the two studies and the dose-response relationships for survival and for large groupings of neoplasms suggests that these results are consistent findings in cesium-137-injected dogs and might be dose-related late effects in humans exposed to sufficient amounts of internally deposited cesium-137. /Cesium-137/
[Nikula KJ et al; Radiat Res 146 (5): 536-47 (1996)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Developmental or Reproductive Toxicity/ Significantly reduced survival was noted in rat fetuses following whole-body irradiation (via a cesium-137 source) of pregnant dams on gestational day 14 at acute radiation doses 4 Gy (400 rad); an LD50 value was about 5 Gy (500 rad). No reports were located regarding death in animals following intermediate- or chronic-duration external exposure to radioactive cesium. /Cesium-137/
[Koshimoto et al C; J Radiat Res 35: 74-82 (1994)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/LABORATORY ANIMALS: Neurotoxicity/ The experiments were carried out on 35 male (M) and female (F) rats contaminated by ingestion of cesium-137 for 38 or 84 days; the total cesium activity was 288 Bq 460 Bq, and respectively. The duration of forced swimming decreased significantly in the contaminated groups as compared with controls (n=16). The active avoidance reaction in the shuttle-box shows an increase in F groups and a decrease in M groups. The total latency time of the same reaction was lower in F and M treated rats on the first day of learning. The score of aggressive behavior rose significantly, especially in group F. These results can be explained by the sex dependence of cesium accumulation and by the neurotoxic action of the radionuclide on several central neural areas including monoaminergic and endocrine mechanisms. /Cesium-137/
[Rmboiu S et al; Rev Roum Physiol 27 (1): 29-37 (1990)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/GENOTOXICITY/ …Mice were irradiated with a cesium-137 source at a dose rate of 4.8 cGy/day for 26 days. /Blood/ sampling was continued for another 39 days after irradiation. Elevated frequencies compared with the control group were found at days 2, 9 and 20 after the start of the irradiation for micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes, and at days 9, 20, 29, 42, 51 and 65 for micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes. /Cesium-137/
[Grawe J et al; Int J Radiat Biol 63 (3): 339-347 (1993)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/OTHER TOXICITY INFORMATION/ Goal of the study is to investigate the long-time impact of incorporated cesium-137 on hormonal status and ultrastructure of neuroendocrine organs. Experiments were conducted with mature rats which received /cesium-137/ daily with food… in dose of 600 Bq /for/ 1, 3, 6, 9 and 18 months. …There /were/ some statistically reliable changes in hypothalamus-hypophysis-thyroid, hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal and hypothalamus-hypophysis-gonade system. …Destructive-dystrophic changes of different degree of pronunciation of parenchyma of organs investigated were observed. They were connected with disruption of intraorgan blood circulation. The most pronounced disruptions of intraorgan blood circulation were observed in brain with prevalent disruption of hypothalamus section, hypophysis, thyroid, gonads. /Cesium-137/
[Derevyanko L; Pathophysiology 5 (1): 207 (1998)] **PEER REVIEWED**

/IMMUNOTOXICITY/ The influence of incorporated cesium-137 on peripheral blood cells was studied at different times after a single per os administration to rats. Moderate lymphopenia occurred in 26 days. A 30-70% increase in the number of aberrant lymphocytes was revealed throughout the entire period of observation (up to 547 days). Rats are suggested to develop a pronounced immune depression and chronic radiation sickness. /Cesium-137/
[Monakhov AS et al; Radiobiologiia 31 (6): 798-802 (1991)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

Ecotoxicity Excerpts:
/BIRDS AND MAMMALS/ Concentrations of cesium-137 were determined in 747 lynxes killed in Norway during the period 1986-2001. Highly variable cesium-137 concentrations and aggregated transfer coefficient values were observed, probably caused by variable cesium-137 concentrations in prey and the lynx’s extensive home ranges and roaming distances. Adult lynxes had higher cesium-137 concentrations than sub-adults, and lynxes killed in regions with extensive reindeer grazing areas were more contaminated than others. A model with cesium-137 deposition density, the year lynxes were killed, age, and extent of reindeer grazing area accounted for 50% of the variability in observed cesium-137 concentrations. The analyses were equivocal regarding the influence of stomach content on cesium-137concentrations in lynx muscle, i.e., on the lynx’s specialization in prey species. Gender was not significant. Information on cesium retention in lynx and better estimates of deposition densities in lynxes’ home ranges are important for further elucidation of factors influencing cesium-137 contamination in lynxes. Cesium-137/
[Skuterud L et al; J Environ Radioact 80 (1): 125-38 (2005)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/BIRDS AND MAMMALS/ Transfer of cesium-137 in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain was studied in central (Ostre Namdal) and southern Norway (Vaga) during 2000-2003. Reindeer from these areas have been continuously subjected to countermeasure application since the 1986 Chernobyl accident. In both areas no decline in cesium-137concentrations was detectable in reindeer slaughtered in autumn since 1995, or in reindeer slaughtered in winter since 1998-1999. Seasonal differences in cesium-137 concentrations in reindeer have been less pronounced in recent years, with cesium-137 concentrations occasionally higher in autumn than in winter. Soil-to-plant cesium-137 transfer was significantly higher in Ostre Namdal than in Vaga. Climatic influences on lichen growth and abundance, and on soil properties that influence the availability of cesium-137 for plant uptake, are hypothesized to have a larger impact on long-term transfer of radiocesium in the soil-plant/lichen-reindeer food chain than has been previously observed. /Cesium-137
[Skuterud L et al; Environ Radioact 83 (2): 231-52 (2005) .] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/BIRDS and MAMMALS/ Liver and muscle tissue from dead seals and porpoises found stranded around the UK coast have been analysed for the following radionuclides: cesium-134, cesium-137, plutonium-238, plutonium 239+240. Multifactor analysis of variance indicated that, for radiocesium, there was no significant difference for harbour seals, grey seals or porpoises in terms of species or gender; however, the tissue activity concentration increased with body weight and decreased with distance from Sellafield, the major nuclear reprocessing plant in the UK. The levels of radiocesium in muscle were higher than those in liver, while there appeared to be a concentration factor of approximately 3-4 for muscle radiocesium when compared to radiocesium levels reported for fish, the main food source of the marine mammals under study. Approximate radiation dose calculations indicated that the average dose from radiocesium was less than 10% of the dose from the naturally occurring radioisotope of potassium, 40-K. …The marine mammals concentrated radiocesium from their environment by a factor of 300 relative to the concentration in seawater indicating the value of using marine mammal tissue to measure radiocesium contamination in the marine environment. The maximum radiation dose to the marine mammals from radiocesium was higher than doses previously assessed for critical groups of humans living near Sellafield, while the maximum dose from plutonium was comparable to the doses for humans. /Cesium-134, cesium-137, plutonium-238, -239+240/
[Watson WS et al; Sci Total Environ 234 (1-3): 1-13 (1999)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

/BIRDS and MAMMALS/ It has been questioned if the high exposure of reindeer to radiocesium may have induced genetic damage. /Researchers/… did not find any general relationship between radiocesium exposure and chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer, but they revealed significantly more aberrations in reindeer born in 1986, compared to those born both before and after 1986. /The authors/ …concluded that the Chernobyl accident fallout had created certain genetic effects on calves immediately after the accident in the most exposed areas. /Radiocesium/
[Shore R.F., Rattner BA. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals. Ecological & Environmental Toxicology Series 2001. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. 2001, p. 535] **PEER REVIEWED**

/BIRDS and MAMMALS/ At the highest polluted site /in Sweden/, where the ground deposition of /cesium-137/ (137-Cs) was 145,000 Bq/sq m, the average concentration of 137-Cs in /common shrews/ (S. araneus) amounted to 6289 Bq/kg. The toxic effects of chronic exposure of insectivores to radionuclides are not very well known. Increased spleen, kidney and liver weights have been reported in S. araneus inhabiting territories influenced by low-level irradiation caused by the Chernobyl accident. The effects were attributed to physiological and immunological responses to chronic irradiation.
[Shore R.F., Rattner BA. Ecotoxicology of Wild Mammals. Ecological & Environmental Toxicology Series 2001. John Wiley & Sons, New York, N.Y. 2001, p. 141] **PEER REVIEWED**

/AQUATIC SPECIES/ Turtles inhabiting a radioactive reservoir appear to experience genetic damage due to environmental exposure to low concentrations of long-lived radionuclides. Total body burdens for the 50 reservoir turtles examined in the survey ranged from 164.7-4679.3 Bq for cesium-137 and from 462.6-5098.3 Bq for strontium-90. Flow cytometric (FCM) assays of red blood cell nuclei demonstrated significantly greater variation in DNA content for the reservoir turtles than for turtles from a nearby, non-radioactive site. Furthermore, two of the reservoir turtles possessed FCM profiles that are indicative of aneuploid mosaicism. These data strongly suggest that exposure to low-level radiation may involve a sensitive genetic response in a natural population. /Cesium-137 and strontium-90/
[Lamb T et al; Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 20 (1): 138-42 (1991)] **PEER REVIEWED** PubMed Abstract

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